Alto Flügelhorn or Alto Tuba or Alto Euphonium
Like the Piccolo Flügelhorn, I only include this instrument for completeness sake. It is extremely rare, and I can find only a few examples of such an instrument ever having been manufactured. In essence it is a wide bore Alto Horn. Do not use this instrument in your writing.
The Mellophone as an Alto Tuba
I’ve gone back and forth in my head as whether or not to include the so-called “marching brass.” In most instances, it’s a moot point. Marching brass instruments are just reconfigured and redesigned versions of the traditional brass instruments. There’s one exception though, the Mellophone.
There are actually two different instruments that go by the name Mellophone. One is the older style instrument that is shaped like a Horn but pitched in alto F or E-flat and played with the right hand instead of the left. The other instrument can more properly be called a “Mellophonium.” This instrument is bell-front and looks like a giant Flügelhorn. This version is the most commonly seen today in high school and college marching bands.
The Mellophone does not fit neatly into any one instrument family. It is an odd mélange of the cornet, tuba, and horn families. The wide bell flare is close to that of a Horn. The bore structure is closer to cornets, but the bore width is closer to tubas.
It is clearly not a horn because the mouthpiece is not that of the deep funnel cup type, so the choice must be narrowed down to between a cornet and a tuba. The closest analog is the Alto Horn. Here we must look at specifics. Alto Horns are pitched in E-flat while Mellophones are usually in F. This means that the Alto Horn should be bigger all around than the Mellophone assuming that they are members of the same family. However, this is not the case. The Mellophone, in general, has a much wider bore than does the Alto Horn. On average, the Alto Horn’s bore ranges between .409″ (top of the line professional) and .462″ (mid-range student) with an average of an 8.5″ bell, while the Mellophone’s bore is consistently .460″ with a 10″ to 11″ bell. As we’ve placed the Alto Horn firmly in the cornet family, the means that the Mellophone should really be classified as a tuba.
This opens up an interesting world. As we say in the entry on tuba species, there is no true member of the tuba family pitched in the alto voice range. We go from soprano with the Flügelhorn to the tenor/baritone range with the Euphonium/Tenor Tuba. The Mellophone could easily fill this gap. I would like to think of it as just an Alto Flügelhorn pitched in F a fifth below normal. I could easily replace the bottom voice in a group of Flügelhorns (say part four in a choir of four voices). This will give an additional solo voice to the ensemble (one never before included in concert music), and will extend the range of the Flügelhorn section.
Some notes: the Mellophone (hereafter referred to as an Alto Tuba) should always be written in F transposing in the treble clef. The instrument pitched in E-flat is a thing of a bygone age and no longer manufactured. When being used as an Alto Tuba, it is essential that the widest bore instrument made be used for that part. Also essential, is the use of the proper mouthpiece on the Alto Tuba. Modern instruments are manufactured so that a trumpet mouthpiece can be used on the instrument, but the result is far from satisfactory. In order to ensure proper results, a large, deep cup Alto Horn mouthpiece must be used by the player. This will result in a warm, sonorous sound that will blend with the rest of the tubas.
Oddly, the Alto Tuba (Mellophone) has never been used in a concert setting. This is probably a result of it being solely thought of as an instrument for the marching field. However, if we remove ourselves from the football field, and realize that this instrument is not meant to be a substitute for the F Horn, then we are free to use it as it truly is – an Alto Tuba.
Summertime on Mellophone. Note the wider bore and rounder south than the Alto Horn.
A section of 5 Mellophones