Today, I was gifted with the first ever review of Bandestration. I’m more than please. The review comes from Thomas Goss of orchestrationonline.comBret’s focus is on the main constituents of band music: winds and brass. His site is a cornucopia of valuable information and insights about these instruments, as relevant to orchestrators as it is to band arrangers. He’s got an approach that is reminiscent of the taxonomic approach of Norman Del Mar’s “Anatomy of an Orchestra.” From his section on clarinets: “It is possible to think of the clarinet family as we would the taxonomy of living species. The genus Clarinet has many species, and several of those species have further subspecies. Just as in wildlife, the true taxonomy of some of these beasts is debated. Many of these species and subspecies, again like our wildlife, are in danger of going extinct (and six members of the family already have expired). Genus – Clarinet.” Bret’s got some great introductory writings on the heavy hitters of the winds and brass, along with their neglected cousins, like the lupophone, the contraforte, and the ophicleide. I appreciate not only how he gives these auxiliaries a fair shake, but even goes on to propose a revitalization to the orchestra through the addition of new members. Bandestration is more than just a blog or a reference site: it’s really its own philosophy about understanding the roles and relationships of brass and wind instruments.
As the Horn differs in playing than all other brass instruments (hand in the bell, use of 16 harmonics, backwards playing position, etc.), it is only natural that its technique should be different. Much, like the use of valves is similar, but the Horn poses its own unique scenarios.
Like all brass instruments, the Horn can play pedal notes. These are the fundament pitch of the harmonic series. These notes are not general used in everyday literature, but can be effective. Pedal notes are usually only used on the B-flat side of the Horn, and thus will make a natural chromatic extension down from the normal range. I myself once wrote a pedal E-flat (written) below the bass clef. The players looked quizzical at first, but were able to produce the note (1st valve on the B-flat side) with some confidence. Much lower than this and the production can be suspect. The pedal F (sounding a low B-flat) is widely used and should present no problems, but as the pitches descend, the notes will be harder and harder to produce. Pedal notes on the F side are nearly impossible.
There is only one mute available for the horn, the straight mute. It is used just like on other brass instruments to change the timbre to a buzzier and somewhat softer sound. As the mute covers the whole of the bell opening, the Hornist’s hand will be displaced, which means that the hand cannot be used to affect the tuning.
Stopping is a technique that only Horn players can utilize. It involves forcing the hand inside the bell to close off the airway. In doing this, the sound will become brash and buzzy. It can be used for loud aggressive passages or soft distant ones. One special note, when player stops the Horn, the instrument will sound a minor second lower. The composer does not have to notate the passage any differently. The player will do all the transposition necessary.
A demonstration of stopping. Note: the player goes into more detail about how the hand stopping affects the pitch than I do. The composer needs not worry about the transposition.
Wait… does the pitch go up or down when you stop… Evidently, there is considerable debate here. I leave that to horn players to figure out.
Hand Horn Technique
The Hand Horn is a colloquial name for the Natural Horn without valves. Other natural brass instruments (i.e. trumpet) are limited to notes within the harmonic series. By using the hand placed in the bell, Natural Horn players can alter the pitch of notes to be able to add a considerable variety of notes outside of the harmonic series. All pitches half a step lower than notes in the harmonic series are available as fully stopped notes. In essence, a Horn in F could become a Horn in E when stopped. Half and three-quarter stopping will also give varying shades of pitches. It is beyond the scope of this blog to mention every pitch than a Horn can produce via hand techniques. What should be noted is that the notes outside of the natural harmonic series will sound different than the pure notes. The will have either a full stopped or a half-stopped sound.
While all modern Horns possess valves and a fully chromatic range, hand Horn technique can be utilized by all players on any instrument.
The famous 4th Horn solo from Beethoven’s 9th Symphony. Done on natural horn with hand horn technique.
All brass instruments are capable of producing more than one note at a time – or at least giving the impression of doing so. In order to do this, the player must play a one note, usually in the lower register, while singing another note in a higher register. Usually, the sung note is a note harmonious to the played note (e.g. a perfect 5th, an octave, etc.). The result is not the two notes that are played/sung, but a fully fleshed out chord. The Horn was the first brass instrument to exploit this technique. The most famous example of this is Weber’s Horn Concertino written for natural Horn. The cadenza of the works utilizes extensive multiphonics.
Multiphonics should only be used for solo playing. Their sound is weak and usually won’t project through a mass ensemble.
Weber’s Horn Concertino
Note: this performance uses a Natural Horn, so it is an excellent example of hand horn technique. Listen for notes that do not sound like those next to each other. Multiphonics start at 11:00.
The last major technique is “bells up.” This is where the Horn player tilts the instrument ninety degrees so that the instrument is parallel to the ground. This effort is to produce more volume and to have a visual effect. The visual effect only works in a live performance and is not apparent on recordings. One thing to consider is that the player’s hand position will have to change, and therefore, the tuning will change. Only use bells up on occasion for massive, loud passages. It works best for unison lines or passages in octaves.
There are many passages in Mahler and the Rite of Spring where Horn players will use bells up. Just before the Sacrificial Dance there is a huge unison Horn line where all 8 horns throw their bells in the air and shout out the theme.
An excerpt from Rachmaninoff’s The Bells. Towards the end of the clip, the whole Horn section can be seen with their bells in the air.
A good example of historical Horns, hand Horn technique, and stopping.