What to do with new instruments? Part 2 – Bass Oboe

Continuing on my series of how composers deal with new instruments, I now move to the Bass Oboe.  In order to differentiate it from the Heckelphone, I will only address scores that specify the instrument as a Bass Oboe.  With some of these works, there is some confusion as to the instrument that is intended.  For my purposes, only is the part is marked Heckelphone will I treat it as being written for such an instrument.

Loreé came out the their Bass (Baryton) Oboe in 1889, the same year that Fontaine-Besson unveiled their Contrabass Clarinet.  Unlike the Contrabass Clarinet, the Bass Oboe had to wait nearly 20 years before composers started to take note of it.

Delius 1908

Fredrick Delius was the first composer to use the Bass Oboe in a major work, his Dance Rhapsody 1. The piece opens with the Bass Oboe and the English Horn in a sinuous duet.  The part continues throughout the work, and at no time does the player double another instrument.  The odd thing about this part is its notation at sounding pitch in both treble and bass clef.  Because of this, the part has a somewhat higher tessitura than would be expected.  Delius treats it like a 2nd English Horn most of the time.  Only once does the Bass Oboe descend to the low B.  Range is a semi-tone shy of two octaves (low B to high B-flat).  The part is complex and well woven into the fabric of the orchestra.  At no point does the instrument stick out as being an “add-on” to an already existing ensemble.

Delius also used the Bass Oboe in Fenimore and Gerda, Paris, A Mass of Life, Requiem, and Songs of Sunset.

Holst 1914

Literature for the Bass Oboe begins and ends with Holst’s Planets.  Well, not really.  There are plenty of other pieces that call for the Bass Oboe, but none as significant as Holst’s work.

Holst has his Bass Oboe double Oboe 3.  Bass Oboe is played in Mars (1), Mercury (3), Saturn (5), Uranus (6), and Neptune (7); while Oboe 3 is used only in Venus (2) and Jupiter (4).  We can see that the bulk of the part is on the Bass Oboe.  In a 12 page long part, roughly 4 are for Oboe and 8 are for Bass Oboe.  The range of the part (Bass Oboe only) is a semi-tone shy of two octaves (exact same range as the Delius).  The majority of the part lies in the mid to lower range, but is not confined there.  The part has great agility and is equal to the parts for the other oboes (Oboe and English Horn).  There are several solos and exposed parts as well as essential ensemble playing.  When Holst does not need the low sound, in the peaceful Venus and the joyful Jupiter, he has the player pick up the regular Oboe.  The other movements has a more sinister edge where the Bass Oboe’s sound is perfect.  Holst uses standard notation with the Bass Oboe sounding one octave lower than written.

Holst never used the instrument again.

Grainger 1919

Since the primary focus of the blog is composing for band, it seems odd that one of the earliest works for the Bass Oboe is a work for band, Grainger’s “Children’s March.”  This work call for a prominent Bass Oboe part throughout, but it is most often played on the English Horn.  Oddly enough, there is no English Horn part in the score.  The part only descends below the range of the English Horn a few times, and those times are well covered by the rest of the band.

Grainger 1922

While Grainger wasn’t totally successful in his Bass Oboe scoring in the Children’s March, his score to The Warriors makes up for that.  Sadly, the score is nearly impossible to get my hands on, or else I would do a more in depth analysis of it.  But, what is evident is the minute-long solo in the middle of the piece for Bass Oboe.  Grainger is known for his “democratic” scoreing where everyone gets an equal part.  Solos like this are unheard of in his music (this may be the longest solo in any of his instrumental works).  The work is dedicated to Delius who first started the use of the Bass Oboe.

Grainger would use the Bass Oboe one more time in his career, in an odd arrangement of his Hill Song 1 where the Bass Oboe is a substitute for the Tenor Sarrusophone.  Strangely, this version has never been played…

Conclusion

What do all these works have in common? They are all English.  While the French were the ones to develop the Bass Oboe, the English were the first to exploit it.  In fact, we can find no major use of the Bass Oboe in French music at all.  Over in Germany, the Heckelphone was being exploited while in England the Bass Oboe was taking hold.  France was right out.

After these works, occasional pieces would crop up, but few managed to survive in the repertoire. More modern composers are making use of the instrument again and it is becoming more frequent, though not as frequent as the Contrabass Clarinet.

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What to do with new instruments? Part 1 – Contrabass Clarinet

I thought it might be interesting to take a look at how composers react to new instruments being invented.  I’ll post a few installments in this series.  The first is the Contrabass Clarinet.

Saint-Saëns

In 1889, Fontaine-Besson produced the first workable Contrabass Clarinet (Sax and other had tried, but were ultimately unsuccessful).  This new instrument was said to be wonderful and full of new possibilities.  Camille Saint-Saëns is said to have written that the instrument was “my dream realized.”  A few years earlier, in 1883, Saint-Saëns wrote his opera Henry VIII*, which included an optional part for the E-flat Contrabass Clarinet.  This E-flat instrument is very likely Sax’s earlier, not successful invention.  By the time of the first performance in 1889, the Fontaine-Besson instrument would have been available and it is likely that it is the instrument that would have been used for the part.

*Note: I’ve looked through this score quickly and cannot find where the Contrabass Clarinet is used outside of the instrument page at the beginning.  Perhaps someone has better eyes than I do.

D’Indy

A few years later, Vincent d’Indy was to include a major part for the instrument in his Fervaal.  This piece has never enjoyed much success.  D’Indy tried to expand the orchestra by including a saxophone quartet and eight saxhorns into the work as well as the Contrabass Clarinet.  D’Indy oddly uses German notation for his Contra part – that is written in bass clef and sounding a ninth lower.  He only uses the Contra in the 2nd Act, but it’s use is extensive and highly important.  It is only used roughly a quarter of the act, and doubles the Bass Clarinet (in B-flat and A) when not being played.  Oddly though, d’Indy forgets that he has two players on the part for most of the act so the part is usually unison.  The range is just under two octaves from the bottom E (which would have been the lowest note available at the time) to a mid-range D.  Solos and exposed passages are scattered throughout, and the Contra is treated like a fully equal and important member of the orchestra and not some rare visitor there for a special effect.  No professional recording is available, but I have managed to hear a bootleg, which I cannot post on here.

Dvorak

The same cannot be said of Dvorak.  His 1899 opera, The Devil and Kate (Čert a Káča), includes a part for the instrument, but as far as I can tell, it has never once been used in a performance of the work.  Dvorak is said to have been disappointed when an instrument could not be found in Prague for the premier, and even more so when an instrument was shipped from France only to realize that the player could not play the instrument due to it being a different fingering system than he was used to. Sadly, I cannot find the score to this work (it doesn’t appear on IMSLP).  How odd that we have a major work by a major composer that is so little known.

Schoenberg

Ten years later, Arnold Schoenberg wrote for the Contrabass Clarinet in his Five Pieces for Orchestra.  Here’s the weird thing though, he scored for Contrabass Clarinet in A – an instrument that has never existed.  Meanwhile, he scored at the same time for Bass Clarinet in B-flat.  The range of the part goes down to a written F, which would be an E on the B-flat instrument – the lowest note available at the time.  There was no reason whatsoever to score for the instrument in A.  The part encompases two octaves from a written low F upwards.   The part is written in German style in the bass clef sounding a minor tenth lower than written.  The part only contains 24 measures of music, and is only used in the first of the five pieces.  The player sits quietly for the remainder.  There are a few exposed parts including the opening passage, but most of these are doubled by the Contrabassoon.  Schoenberg later rescored the piece eliminating the Contra part.

Strauss

The last work I will cover is one by Richard Strauss.  Strauss wrote about using the Contrabass Clarinet in his update of Berlioz’s Treatise, however he only used the instrument once in his rarely performed Josephslegende.  He uses the Contrabass Clarinet only once for a short 4 measure solo mid-way through the hour-long work.  This solo is cued in the Contrabassoon part, and may sometimes be played on it, however, the tone of the clarinet is essential, because it passes first from Contrabass, then to Bass, and finally to A Clarinet.  The part is written in German style, but not like d’Indy or Schoenberg used.  Here, Strauss writes the part in bass clef, but only sounded a major second below the written pitch.  The part encompasses a range of just under two octaves from a low written F to a D an octave an a sixth above (the exact same range as used in Fervaal) The part is only 4 measures long and the player has only another 4 measure to switch to either the A or D Clarinet (Strauss leaves the doubling up to the performers).  This is a very hard switch.  It would best be done by the player having the A Clarinet in their lap and the Contrabass resting on a stand while they play it.  Not impossible, but very difficult.

The Contrabass Clarinet solo is at 7:40.  A live performance of the ballet on YouTube does not include the Contrabass Clarinet but uses a Bass Clarinet doubled at the octave for the “effect.”

Conclusion

What do these pieces have in common? It is the Fontaine-Besson instrument. Composers were excited about the possibilities of a working Contrabass Clarinet.  D’Indy, of course, was in Paris the home of the instrument.  Strauss’s work was commissioned by Diaghilev for the Ballets Russes in Paris. Dvorak sent away to Paris for the instrument. Schoenberg seems to be the odd man out, but twenty years had passed since its creation until his use, and Strauss’ updated Treatise would have been known to him. His remoteness from the instrument might account for it’s odd key.

It seems few of these instruments were made.  After Strauss’ Josephslegende, the Contrabass Clarinet slides back into obscurity for a generation save for two works by Havergal Brian (Symphonies 1 and 4). Then in the 1940’s when a new model of Contrabass Clarinet is brought out by Leblanc, which leads to its continued use until this day.

Perhaps I’ll add Brian to this account to be more inclusive.