This little saxophone is pitched one octave higher than the common Alto Saxophone. In use and appearance, it is very much like the Soprano Saxophone. For many years, this instrument was a very rare sight, but today it is becoming more and more common. Continue reading “E-flat Sopranino Saxophone”
As the saxophone is the most modern of all of our woodwind instruments, it naturally follows that it has the most perfect mechanism. To that end, the technique on the saxophone is simple and easy. There are only a handful of trills that cannot be done, namely all trills on the low B-flat, the whole-tone trill on the low B, and the whole-tone trill on the low C-sharp. Aside from these small restrictions any and all technical passages should be playable on nearly any saxophone.
There are a few range variations among the different instruments. All modern Baritones and most Contrabasses possess a low A extension (in both cases sounding a C). Some older Sopraninos, Sopranos, and Basses are only keyed up to high E-flat, though players are able to produce higher notes through the use of harmonics.
All saxophones, with the possible exception of the Piccolo, are able to produce to so-called altissimo range. This range consists of notes above the top keyed note on the instrument (usually high F or F-sharp). A general rule of thumb goes: the larger the instrument, the easier it is to produce the altissimo register. Also, the larger instruments will have a larger range of altissimo. For instance, the Soprano may only be able to play a few notes into the altissimo range, while a Bass may be able to play well over an octave above its normal range.
In general, the altissimo range is somewhat inflexible. Technique up here is difficult, so sustained lines are best. Only the most advanced players will be able to produce the altissimo range, which is why it is often left as an option only for soloists.
“Holy Roller” for Saxophone and band by Libby Larsen. Check out the technique, and especially the use of altissimo.
Saxophone in the Band
The saxophone is really the odd man out in the woodwind section. There is no orchestral equivalent for which to draw from for inspiration. Yet, the saxophone family is the most well-balanced, most harmonious, and has the largest usable range of all of the reed families. In bad bandestrations, I have seen some really atrocious scoring for saxophones. The Altos are continuously scored for with the Horns, while the Tenors and Baritones are made to blend with the low brass. In this kind of scoring, we break up the unified family, and thus lose the one sound than can make the band’s woodwind section a cohesive unit.
For illustration purposes, let’s assume that both the oboes and the bassoons from a single double reed section (remember though that the oboe and the bassoon families have little to do with each other than their means of sound production). In the sound of the double reeds, we have a nasal, reedy sound with a beautiful vibrato. Their opposite is the clarinets who have a warm, cool sound without any hint of a vibrato. They are mirror images of each other, and when we try and blend then, it is like oil and water. But, add the saxophones, whose characteristics are exactly midway between the double reeds and the clarinets, and we instantly get a harmonious mixture.
But, there is a problem with this blending, and it lies in the modern saxophonist’s conception of sound. The modern saxophonist wants a big, almost strident sound that can cut through an amplified jazz ensemble or a rock band. This simply will not work in a band. What most saxophone players do not realize is that their closest kin, at least timbral-wise, is not the clarinets, but the double reeds. The double reeds are gentle beasts for the most part, and so should be the saxophone. I can just imagine a beautiful Bach choral played on a saxophone choir in my head. It is organ-like, sonorous, rich, but I cannot imagine a saxophone player having the sensitivity in today’s world to pull it off. Modern saxophone players have almost entirely eschewed the one player who tried to rectify this situation, Sigurd Rascher, who emphasized a beautiful rich sound. Instead, they have aligned themselves with the school of thought that technique is far superior to sound.
My own thoughts on saxophone sound aside, let us now take a look at the constitution of the saxophone section in the band, and the potential possibilities that lie within. The traditional saxophone section is made up of either two Altos, one Tenor, and one Baritone; or one each of Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Baritone. The later of these make-ups consists of the only section in a traditional band that is perfectly balanced from high to low. The use of two Altos or one Alto and one Soprano is one of timbral choice. Both ensembles have their merits. The two Alto group is warmer in sound, while the group with the Soprano is brighter with a larger range.
Older scores, pre-1950 almost always include a part for a Bass Saxophone. The scoring for Grainger’s Lincolnshire Posy is rather unusual in that it calls for six saxophones (Soprano, 2 Altos, Tenor, Baritone, and Bass). In this work, each member is integral and plays an important part. However, as so often happens, one or two members of the section are left out (usually 2nd Alto and Bass). To leave out a part in an orchestra is sacrilege! Why then are bands allowed to get away with it? We should strive at all times to make sure to include every instrument a composer specifies.
From Grainger’s section of six saxophones, I’d like to build one step further to a larger section of eight. As all saxophone players are able to play multiple instruments (or should!), we can think of doublings, and even triplings within the section. Here is a hypothetical scenario for eight competent players.
Player 1 – Sopranino, Alto
Player 2 – Soprano, Alto
Player 3 – Alto, Piccolo
Player 4 – Alto, Tenor
Player 5 – Tenor, Baritone
Player 6 – Baritone
Player 7 – Bass
Player 8 – Contrabass
Note that the basic makeup is Sn,S,A,A,T,B,Bs,CB, which is a perfectly balanced section from high to low. We can also have a section of P,Sn,S,A,T,B,Bs,CB when the 1st Alto player switches to the Piccolo. On the top end, we can have all four higher players playing Alto at the same time, or even a high quartet of Piccolo, Sopranino, Soprano, and Alto. There are opportunities for two Tenors, as well as a low quartet of the Baritones, Bass, and Contrabass. Also note that I do not have the Bass and Contrabass players doubling. The size of their instruments alone makes doubling much harder. A creative bandestrator can take this scenario and tweak it to their own needs, but it does serve as the basis for a realm of possibility.
With this list of possibilities, what you must remember is that the saxophone is a full member of the woodwind section, and in no way should it support the brass (i.e. the use of them being further members of the Horn section). Proper use of saxophones should fill out the sound of the entire band from soprano to bass, not just the middle octaves. I find it best to think of the saxophone section as a cohesive unit rather than a mixture of individual parts. Think choir, not soloist.
Bach’s Fugue in G minor
Rascher Saxophone Quartet playing Philip Glass’ Concerto for Saxophone Quartet. Listen carefully to the timbre produced by these four players using vintage instruments with round chamber mouthpieces, and compare that to the sound produced by most modern players.
Finally, this may be one of the most impressive videos I’ve ever seen. It is an entire orchestra made up of saxophones from Sopranino to Contrabass playing Respighi’s Roman Festivals. There is never a single moment where the sound of the strings is missed.
With the saxophone, we enter a realm of knowns and unknowns. We all know the sound of the saxophone, or at least we think we do.
“The only sounds that can give any idea of the saxophone’s delicious half-tints and its suggestions of fading twilight are the diminuendo and piano of the cantors in the Russian Imperial Chapel, those wonderful singers who must make the good Lord envious of Tsar Nicholas.”
This was Hector Berlioz’s first impression upon hearing the sound of Adolph Sax playing his new invention. Are we listening to a different instrument today than Berlioz heard?
The simple answer to that question is yes. The saxophone of the 19th century is not quite the same that we see today. Berlioz formulated his opinions based upon hearing a Bass Saxophone in C, and indeed, the saxophone was first conceived as a low voiced instrument. I had the great privilege of hearing a recording of a 19th century Bass Saxophone in C (though not made by Sax himself, but an exact copy), and I can now attest that Berlioz heard a very different sound, and it is indeed priestly. Does this sound still exist? Can we resurrect it from the dead? What is the role of the saxophone in that band anyway?
The original sound of Sax.
We’ve lived with this instrument for over 150 years, and I still attest that bandestrators don’t know what they are doing with it. It has never been accepted into the orchestra, which means that every orchestration text every written slights this instrument, and some even malign it. I both love and play the instrument, but have a very different feel for the instrument than most. I hope some of my insights prove valuable.